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Monday, March 19, 2018
HVAC Fundamentals
Course Description:
This four-day course is a technical presentation that provides students with an introduction to air handling units, heating equipment, cooling equipment, air supply systems, temperature controls and their heating, ventilating and cooling applications.  Topics include:


  • Introduction to Air Conditioning
  • Psychrometrics
  • Control Theory
  • Hydronics
  • Heating
  • Cooling
  • Air Handling Units
  • Indoor Air Quality
The course is evenly divided between lecture/discussion/demonstration time.

HVAC Fundamentals Course Objectives:

Upon completion of the course, the student should be able to:

  • Identify the four important actions involved in air conditioning.
  • List the controllable factors for human comfort.
  • Identify the parts of an air-conditioning unit.

Introduction to Air Conditioning:

  • Define Air Conditioning per ASHRAE.
  • Human Comfort and Health
  • Industrial Process Environmental Control
  • Human body factors that affect body heat
  • Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity
  • Define Ventilation
  • Air Cleanliness and Filtration


  • Define psychrometrics, dry bulb, wet bulb, specific humidity, relative humidity, sensible heat, latent heat, enthalpy, and BTU.
  • Use a sling psychrometer.
  • Use a psychrometric chart to find dry bulb, wet bulb, relative humidity and specific humidity.

Control Theory:

  • Identify the three basic blocks of a basic control system.
  • Define setpoint, control point, offset, controller throttling range, and system throttling range
  • Determine a controller action given an application and the fail-safe position of the controlled device.
  • Define components of control loops
  • Identify analog signals versus digital signals
  • Define differential


  • Identify pumps
  • Natural Flow versus Forces Flow
  • Water distribution systems, a two pipe hydronic system, a three pipe hydronic system, a four pipe hydronic system.
  • Identify valves, two-way normally open valves, two-way normally closed valves, three-way mixing valves and three-way diverting valves.
  • List the problems of oversized and undersized valves.
  • Identify valve end connectors: Flanged, flared, screwed, union screwed, and union sweat
  • Identify hydronic systems water treatment.


  • Identify the British Thermal Unit (BTU).
  • Discuss the Laws of Thermodynamics.
  • Identify heat transfer methods, Conduction, Convection and Radiation.
  • Identify heat exchange methods.
  • Identify the three boiler types.
  • Explain fuel combustion and draft.
  • Explain the function of steam trap.


  • Draw and identify the four main components of a basic refrigeration cycle and identify the direction of refrigerant flow.
  • Identify the components on the high and low sides of the mechanical refrigeration cycle.
  • Define a ton of refrigeration.
  • Explain the purpose of the compressor, condenser, evaporator, and metering device.
  • Air-cooled condensers versus water-cooled condensers.

Air Handling Systems:

  • Classroom Unit Ventilators.
  • Package Air Conditioning units.
  • Heat Pump units.
  • Air Handling units.
  • Rooftop HVAC units.
  • Sequences of Operation.

Indoor Air Quality:

  • Sick building syndrome.
  • ASHRAE standard 62-1989
  • Clean Air Act of 1990
  • Environmental Protection, CFC and HCFC Refrigerants